Table 3 Methods and Units for Fuel CharacterizationRESIDUAL OR ASH COMPOSITION
Methods and Units for Fuel CharacterizationBiomass Coal Bulk density, lb./cf, kg/m3; E 873 Fuel size E 323 Calorific Value, BTU/lb., MJ/kg D 2015 E 711 D 2015 Proximate composition D 3172 Moisture E 871 D 2013, D 3173 Ash D 1102, E830 D 3174 Volatiles E 872/E 897 D 3175 Fixed Carbon By difference By difference Ultimate Analysis: D 3176 C,H E 777 D 3178 N E 778 D 3179 S E 775 D 4239, D 3177 Cl E 776 D2361, AOAC969.10 Water soluble alkali (K, Na, Ca): Soak overnight in H2O @ 90° C. Analyze by AA.
Ash preparation (600° C) D 1102 Ash Elemental (Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) D 3682, D2795Optional: Ash sinter test
Ash fusion temperatures D 1857Dirty fuels such as bark, urban wood waste, stump grindings, etc., should be screened to determine ash and alkali content of the fines: screen sample with Tyler #8 sieve, record percent of total, analyze both <8mm and >8mm.
Note: ASTM methods underlined are preferred. Refer to Appendix B for descriptions of standards and method.