Suggested Methods for Biomass Fuel Characterization


In collecting any sample be sure to get a representative sample including the fines. Fines will sift to the bottom of a pile or conveyor, especially with Urban Wood Waste. Samples are best from the center of a pile. Sample several piles for an average and ask the laboratory to blend them or prepare them for analysis as required. (See TAPPI for detailed sampling methods).



Contact, Phone,  Fax:

Sample  Description:                                        

Sample Identification:                                 

Fuel Analysis: 

____ UPB + Total Chlorine (ASTM D4208) Includes ASTM methods:

     Ultimate D3176; Carbon & Hydrogen D3178); Sulfur D4239, Method C; 

        Nitrogen 3179, Method B; *Ash D1102; Moisture D2013, D3173

     Proximate D3172; Moisture D2013, D3173; *Ash D1102; Volatiles D3173

     Btu/lb D2015

Ash and Deposit Analyses:

____ Elemental Ash Analysis D2795 (Si, Al, Ti, Fe,Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, S, Cl)


____  Sample Preparation 

____  Water Soluble Alkali 

____  Ash Fusion Temperatures (D1857)

Report:*  lb of Alkali per million Btu

       lb of Ash per million Btu

*Note: Ash at 600 C (1110 F) and do not calcine to preserve volatile alkalis. 

Numbers refer to methods of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


% K2O in Ash

% Na2O in Ash

=% Alkali in Ash

*1 x 10(6)/HHV Btu/lb(dry) x Ash % x Alkali % in Ash = lb Alkali/MMBTU